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The inherent adverse effect of a substance.

Hazard Communication Standard

An OSHA standard established in 1983 requiring all employers to inform employees of the hazard of chemicals in the workplace and the steps necessary to avoid harm. 
OSHA's Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) requires the development and dissemination of information about the identities and hazards of the chemicals to workers. All employers with hazardous chemicals in their workplaces must have labels and safety data sheets for their exposed workers, and train them to handle the chemicals appropriately. Chemical manufacturers and importers are required to evaluate the hazards of the chemicals they produce or import, and prepare labels and safety data sheets to convey the hazard information to their downstream customers.
Recent changes to the Hazard Communication Standard will require manufacturers and employers to provide addition assistance to workers exposed to chemicals in the workplace:
Hazard classification: Provides specific criteria for classification of health and physical hazards, as well as classification of mixtures.
Labels: Chemical manufacturers and importers will be required to provide a label that includes a harmonized signal word, pictogram, and hazard statement for each hazard class and category. Precautionary statements must also be provided.
Safety Data Sheets: Will now have a specified 16-section format.
Information and training: Employers are required to train workers on the new labels elements and safety data sheets format to facilitate recognition and understanding.

Health Hazard

Health hazard means a chemical for which there is statistically significant evidence based on at least one study conducted in accordance with established scientific principles that acute or chronic health effects may occur in persons exposed. The term "health hazard" includes chemicals which are carcinogens, toxic or highly toxic agents, reproductive toxins, irritants, corrosives, sensitizers, hepatotoxins, nephrotoxins, neurotoxins, agents which act on the hematopoietic system, and agents which damage the lungs, skin, eyes, or mucous membranes.


Inflammation of the liver.


Toxicity of the liver and associated bile duct and gall bladder.


A substance that is toxic to the liver.


HMIS is the Hazardous Materials Identification System developed by the American Coatings Association and indicates the levels (“1” to “4”) of Health Hazard, Flammability Hazard and Physical Hazard associated with a specific product.


A state of altered immune reactivity in which the body reacts with an exaggerated response to a foreign agent.


A partial reduction in the oxygen concentration supplied to cells or tissues.

Hazard Symbols

Hazard Symbols are used to classify dangerous substances.

Hazard Codes

Hazard Codes and their associated descriptions are an essential part of the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). There are 4 categories of Hazard Codes:

  • Physical Hazard Codes (H200 series)
  • Health Hazard Codes (H300 series)
  • Environmental Hazard Codes (H400 series)
  • Supplementary Hazard Codes (EUH series)

Hazard Codes may be found in the "Advanced" version of Chemical Composition / Ingredients tables.